Note: The following abstracts are written in extremely technical language and include technical research and case studies. References are provided. For 'user-friendly' informative reading, check out the health topics presented by Dr. Martin and Dr. Davenport. Feel free to contact us for more information or if you have any questions.
Diet strategies in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease frequently treated in a primary care setting by health care providers. Despite recent advances in the pharmacologic treatment of this disease, the cornerstone of management continues to be nutrition therapy. Familiarity with the basic principles of dietary management and the recently revised American Diabetes Association nutrition recommendations provide a framework for educating patients in the primary care setting. Basic components of the diet, including the latest guidelines concerning the use of sucrose, carbohydrates, fiber, and mineral supplementation, are discussed here. This article also outlines the steps necessary to use this information to individualize the dietary prescription. Assessment guidelines, intervention strategies, and evaluation methods for patient education are reviewed.
Lippincotts-Prim-Care-Pract. 1997 Jul-Aug; 1(3): 295-304; quiz 305-6
Vitamin and mineral deficiencies which may predispose to glucose intolerance of pregnancy
There is an increased requirement for nutrients in normal pregnancy, not only due to increased demand, but also increased loss. There is also an increased insulin-resistant state during pregnancy mediated by the placental anti-insulin hormones estrogen, progesterone, human somatomammotropin; the pituitary hormone prolactin; and the adrenal hormone, cortisol. If the maternal pancreas cannot increase production of insulin of sustain normoglycemia despite these anti-insulin hormones, gestational diabetes occurs. Gestational diabetes is associated with excessive nutrient losses due to glycosuria. Specific nutrient deficiencies of chromium, magnesium, potassium and pyridoxine may potentiate the tendency towards hyperglycemia in gestational diabetic women because each of these four deficiencies causes impairment of pancreatic insulin production. This review describes the pathophysiology of the hyperglycemia and the nutrient loss in gestational diabetes and further postulates the mechanism whereby vitamin/mineral supplementation may be useful to prevent or ameliorate pregnancy-related glucose intolerance.
J-Am-Coll-Nutr. 1996 Feb; 15(1): 14-20
Relation between lens opacities and vitamin and mineral supplement use
PURPOSE: The authors evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relations between lens opacities and intake of vitamins and minerals in supplements.
METHODS: Type and quantity of vitamins and minerals taken currently and 10 years before interview were obtained in a population-based sample of persons in the Nutritional Factors in Eye Disease Study (n = 2152).
RESULTS: In persons without diabetes, regular use of multivitamin preparations 10 years in the past was associated with decreased risk for nuclear sclerosis (odds ratio [OR], 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5, 0.8) and increased the risk for cortical opacities (OR, 1.6; CI, 1.1, 2.2). In persons with diabetes, past multivitamin use was not associated with nuclear sclerosis (OR, 1.1; CI, 0.4,2.7) but with decreased risk for cortical opacities (OR, 0.1; CI, 0.0, 0.9). Cross-sectional associations with current intake of supplements were weaker, but in the same direction. Multivitamin use was not cross-sectionally or longitudinally related to posterior subcapsular cataract in persons with or without diabetes.
CONCLUSION: Use of vitamin supplements is longitudinally associated with nuclear and cortical opacities. However, the direction of the association is influenced by the type of opacity and diabetes status.
Mares-Perlman-JA; Klein-BE; Klein-R; Ritter-LL
Ophthalmology. 1994 Feb; 101(2): 315-25